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CARACTERISATION DU RESEAU DE SIGNALISATION IMPLIQUE DANS LA MAINTENANCE ET LA PROLIFERATION DES CELLULES SOUCHES DE LA RETINE DU XENOPE

Abstract : In contrast to the adult mammals, the retina of amphibians shows continuous growth during adulthood through active neural stem cells localized in the defined niche called ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). This model offers an exceptional tool to study in vivo the molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance and proliferation of neural stem cells during post-embryonic stages. In this order, the identification and the characterization of the signaling pathways acting in biological retinal stem cell niche is an essential step.My PhD research was divided in two main parts: the study of the interaction between the Wnt and Hedgehog pathways within the CMZ and the functional study of Yap, the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway in this model. By using genetic and pharmacological tools, the first part of this project demonstrated an unexpected antagonism between the Wnt and the Hedgehog signaling in the CMZ that regulates proliferative activity of retinal stem and progenitor cells. In this article, we propose a model in which an antagonistic interplay of Wnt and Hedgehog pathways may regulate the balance proliferation/differentiation in the post-embryonic retina. Second, gain and loss of function experiments of Yap have shown that this factor plays a key role in the regulation of temporal replication of DNA retinal stem cells. Indeed, inhibition of Yap leads to strong reduction of the S-phase length during the cell cycle associated with genomic instability. c-Myc and p53-p21 overactivation seems to be involved in this phenotype. This work also allowed us to identify a novel YAP partner, the transcriptional factor PKNOX1. We indeed propose a model in which the YAP/PKNOX1 complex may be required for the successful convening of the replication phase on stem cells, essential for the maintenance of genome integrity on the cells and their progeny.
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Pauline Cabochette. CARACTERISATION DU RESEAU DE SIGNALISATION IMPLIQUE DANS LA MAINTENANCE ET LA PROLIFERATION DES CELLULES SOUCHES DE LA RETINE DU XENOPE. Biologie du développement. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA11T089⟩. ⟨tel-01165010⟩

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