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Theses

Caractérisation de panneaux solaires photovoltaïques en conditions réelles d’implantation et en fonction des différentes technologies

Abstract : Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) keeps growing fast and an increasing number of studies is require in order to assure the reliability and predictability of the PV-produced electricity. The lack of visibility concerning this field is a continuous source of complaints from the investors who hesitate to commit to PV projects (especially after the decrease of buying prices in Europe). Therefore, to assure the successful increase of PV energy, it is necessary to provide studies aiming at better understanding PV systems in real operations conditions, that means in outdoor conditions.The goal of this doctoral work has been to characterize different PV module technologies in their real use conditions. The outdoor parameters that influence the behavior of different module technologies have been investigated. The goal was to obtain useful information which could make PV-produced electricity more reliable. Therefore, these studies can efficiently complete standard laboratory characterization tests made under a single condition, the purpose of which is usually to determine the efficiency of the different solar cells technologies.To achieve this goal, first it has been necessary to define the outdoor parameters that mainly influence the modules and the most suitable methods to be used for their investigation. For this reason, part of this doctoral work has been devoted to the study of weather and atmospheric factors affecting the electrical behavior of the modules, as well as setting up instruments and methods to measure them. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of outdoors characterizations have been addressed.Then, after multiple fully automated PV platforms, mounted at the LGEP and at Ecole Polytechnique, thanks to a collaboration with the Laboratoire de Méteorologie Dynamique (LMD). The different applications and uses of these platforms have been highlighted by analyzing data recorded periodically (every minute on average) over periods ranging from days to several months. Manufacturer data, which are acquired in standard test conditions, and the performance measured in several conditions are compared. These results can be used for both research, understanding the behavior of the modules, help in predicting the energy yield of PV system and also to stress the educational role in teaching PV.Finally, the feasibility of an electric card that provides the main characteristics of any PV module by extracting the measured I(V) curve is described. Such electric card, developed at the LGEP, has other uses such as the determination of the maximum operating point.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 17, 2015 - 5:52:32 PM
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Thomas Mambrini. Caractérisation de panneaux solaires photovoltaïques en conditions réelles d’implantation et en fonction des différentes technologies. Météorologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112380⟩. ⟨tel-01164783⟩

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