Digestion de l'amidon et des parois végétales du maïs fourrage chez les ruminants : conséquences sur l'évaluation de sa valeur nutritive

Abstract : Maize silage, commonly used in the diet of high-yielding ruminants, provides two energetic fractions: starch and cell wall (NDF). The proportion of the two energetic fractions in the whole plant varies with the stage ofmaturity at harvest, type of hybrid and climatic conditions. The prediction system of maize silage’s nutritive value developed in the 1990s, is based on the estimation of in vivo total tract organic matter digestibility (Omd). This system needs to be revised to better take into account the respective contribution of starch and cell wall in the digested organic matter and therefore to allow the prediction of the starch degradation in the rumen. Moreover, validity of prediction equations requires to be tested with current hybrids of maize and harvest practices which changed compared to 1980s. The aims of the thesis were to 1) obtain new references on Omd and on in vivo digestibility of starch and cell wall, 2) specify partition of starch and cell wall digestion between rumen and intestines, 3) investigate new prediction criteria of starch and cell wall digestion. In vivo digestibility in sheep was measured on 36 maize silages. Thirty-two maize silages were obtained from 4 hybrids that were cultivated for 2 consecutive years in the same location and harvested at 4 stages of maturity. Four additional silages (2 hybrids and 2 maturity stages) were produced in different location. In sacco starch and cell wall degradability in the rumen was measured in cows for the 36 maize silages with an adapted methodology developed in this thesis for high starch content forages. For the 4 maize silages harvested in the second location, the digestion in the rumen and in the intestines was quantified in vivo on cows. Maize silages of this thesis were characterized by higher starch content, lower cell wall content, similar OMd but lower in vivo digestibility of cell walls compared to INRA 2007 data, obtained from measures on fresh plant in 1980s. The relative stability of OMd with stage of maturity was explained by the compensation between the increase in the content of digestible starch and the decrease in digestible cell wall content. Type of hybrid and maturity stage at harvest affected digestive partition with lower starch degradability in the rumen for late maturity stages involving differences in fermentation profiles in the rumen. Although chemical composition of maize has changed, the INRA equation used to predict OMd from laboratory pepsin-cellulase digestibility has been validated on the in vivo data of the thesis and, therefore remains relevant for OMd prediction. New in vivo datas, in relation to chemical, enzymatic and agronomy parameters, will allow better evaluation of the nutritive value of maize silage in the future feed evaluation systems developed by INRA.
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Julie Peyrat. Digestion de l'amidon et des parois végétales du maïs fourrage chez les ruminants : conséquences sur l'évaluation de sa valeur nutritive. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22511⟩. ⟨tel-01163429⟩

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