Discriminations, lieu de résidence et marché du travail

Abstract : In most of the developed societies, in France too, we are now witnessing an increase of the social and economic disparities between regions, an occurrence and persistence of neighborhoods "in difficulty", concentrating the most vulnerable populations. "Spatial segregation" appears as a norm of urban organization and territory as an issue of social cohesion. Many economic and sociological studies have sought to explain the differentials observed between these populations, particularly in the labor market. Three main mechanisms explain the impact of the place of residence on the individuals' labor market achievement: the spatial mismatch, the social environment and the discrimination based on place of residence. In this doctoral dissertation we focus on this last mechanism through which the place of residence affects the individuals' labor market achievement. Across three studies covering three chapters, we highlight three important elements in the analysis of discrimination related to place of residence: the feeling of discrimination, wage discrimination and employment discrimination. These are illustrated by different methods: an analysis of subjective survey data, an analysis of objective survey data and, finally, an analysis of experimental data. The main results are as follows. We have shown that there are specific effects of place of residence on the feeling of discrimination among young people. We have shown that the place of residence has a direct influence on the probability of finding a job after the school as well as on the salary associated with the job. Using a decomposition of wage differentials we have shown that there is a potential discrimination related to the place of residence that affects especially young women. We found a major impact of the residential county on the individuals’ chances of access to hiring. The same effect also exists, more weakly, at the level of the neighborhood reputation. An analysis of the order of answers to job candidates confirmed these results and revealed an even stronger discrimination. On the basis of these results, we propose policy recommendations related to different aspects of discrimination based on place of residence.
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Emilia Jones. Discriminations, lieu de résidence et marché du travail. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST0053⟩. ⟨tel-01162765⟩



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