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Malformation artério-veineuses cérébrales : d'une amélioration des techniques d'imagerie vers un changement de paradigme des traitements

Abstract : Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are aggressive vascular malformations presenting a haemorrhagic complication risk that may lead to severe consequences in terms of morbi-­‐mortality. Available imaging tools poorly help in understanding their angio-­‐architecture. We have developed two imaging tools improving our understanding of the anatomy of these malformations: a semi-­‐automated segmentation algorithm and a convex spherical anamorphosis algorithm. These algorithms have been elaborated for use on 3D rotational angiography acquisitions; they provide a better visualisation of the bAVMs’ main draining vein, especially for venous stenosis or for focal ectasia. They also help in depicting accurately intranidal aneurysms. These improvements in the analysis of the bAVMs’ angioarchitecure may help in reducing the therapeutic risk for these malformations. For a further testing of the potential of anti-­‐angiogenic agents for the treatment of bAVMs, we have elaborated a simplified swine AVM model consisting in the occlusion of a common carotid artery by endovascular means. The comparison between the volume of the rete mirabile at D0 and 3 months and those measured in a control group showed a significant increasing of the retia in the occlusion group. Moreover, a tendency was observed concerning an increase in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) serum levels close to the rete mirabile in the occlusion group. Finally, pathological changes close to those seen in human bAVMs were observed on autopsy samples in the occlusion group.
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Frédéric Clarençon. Malformation artério-veineuses cérébrales : d'une amélioration des techniques d'imagerie vers un changement de paradigme des traitements. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université de Limoges, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIMO0073⟩. ⟨tel-01162450⟩

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