Étude des propriétés du moment angulaire orbital des ondes EM : développement de capteurs, transfert de moment et applications

Abstract : An electromagnetic wave is defined by its amplitude, its wave vector, its frequency and its angular momentum. This momentum can be decomposed into two components: polarization (associated to spin angular momentum), and orbital angular momentum. The later has not been investigated thoroughly until the last few years. To deepen the knowledge on orbital angular momentum, both prototypes and analysis tools have been developed in this thesis. First, study of orbital angular momentum transfer to a macroscopic object, at a frequency of 870 MHz, is presented. An interpretation of the transfer mechanism is then proposed, supported by the calculation of field equations and electromagnetic simulations. Secondly, the conception and the realization of two antennas able to generate an EM wave with orbital angular momentum are presented. These antennas use phase plates with an angular dependent law. The first one is a “spiral” phase plate, with constant permittivity and variable height. The second one has variable permittivity and constant height. Both have been simulated and characterized in CHEOPS anechoic chamber (DGA-MI, Bruz). Measurements of magnitude and phase, on a plane, have been obtained. Lastly, total reflection on planar and curved surfaces and influence of sampling on OAM modes estimation were investigated. Simulation results of reflected waves are promising and show a relationship between the induced deformations and the object reflected on. As for OAM modes estimation, study has been performed using an extraction circle on the wave front. Several parameters (center of the circle, radius) have been considered, and a method for OAM modes estimation on a large bandwidth is proposed.
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Ronan Niemiec. Étude des propriétés du moment angulaire orbital des ondes EM : développement de capteurs, transfert de moment et applications. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Rennes 1, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014REN1S154⟩. ⟨tel-01162369⟩

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