Impact de l’état et de la prise en charge nutritionnels dans les maladies neurodégénératives : Approche neuroépidémiologique

Abstract : Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) mainly concern neuromuscular diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease. Due to the multiplicity of factors inducing a weight loss, the NDD are at risk of malnutrition, which can alter the evolution of these diseases and the quality of life of patients. The purpose of this work was to assess the nutritional status and / or the effect of treatment of patients with ALS and cognitive disorders (dementia and / or mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) in France with a health network, but also in Central Africa. The health network Limousin Nutrition (LINUT) realizes assessments and nutritional interventions in ALS patients at home and in residents of nursing homes (NH). The first evaluation by the network of ALS patients found more swallowing disorders than specialized consultation (60.0% vs. 47.5%) and taste disorders (43.8%), not further described in ALS. Improvements of practices were proposed. The network assessed also residents in NH, with or without dementia, initially and after a 4 months follow-up. Malnutrition affected more often demented patients (56.1% vs. 46.4% p=0.004), and energy intakes of all residents (26.4 ± 8.8 kcal/kg/d) were below the recommendations. The network intervention improved the nutritional status of patients with dementia (+0.29 ± 0.07 point of MNA®/month, p=0.003) and energy intake of all residents at 4 months. Two studies named
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Pierre Jésus. Impact de l’état et de la prise en charge nutritionnels dans les maladies neurodégénératives : Approche neuroépidémiologique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIMO0071⟩. ⟨tel-01161793⟩

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