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Devenir de micropolluants présents dans les boues d’épuration, du traitement à l’épandage agricole : Application aux micropolluants métalliques (Cd, Cu) et organiques (médicaments) issus du traitement biologique conventionnel d’effluents urbains ou hospitaliers

Abstract : Wastewater treatment plants represent the main transfer pathways for micropollutants to enter the environment. Emerging contaminants are not totally eliminated and are transferred to the sludge by sorption process due to their physico-chemical properties. Among them, pharmaceutical compounds are of a great concern because of their potential adverse effects to ecosystems. As sludge landspreading is the main process of valorization employed in France, the choice of the kind of sludge stabilization treatment able to reduce the amount of micropollutants is crucial. In this work, the fate of trace metallic elements (cadmium and copper) and pharmaceutical compounds (carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, diclofenac, ketoprofen, econazole, atenolol and propranolol) has been investigated in sludge from different origins: urban (with and without ozone oxidation treatment) and hospital, during their treatment (thickening and stabilization by composting, liming or anaerobic digestion). The methodology developed in this work consisted in connecting the partition coefficients of micropollutants (between the soluble and particulate fractions of sludge, Kdsorption) and their desorption potential (Kdesorption) with micropollutants physico-chemical properties and sludge characteristics (biochemical composition and functional groups). Statistical analysis leads to the determination of models able to predict Kdsorption and Kdesorption. Molecular weight and solubility of pharmaceutical compounds, sludge’s pH, phosphoric functional groups in the soluble phase and amine/hydroxyl groups in the particulate fraction of sludge had the main impact on the sorption behavior. Moreover the oxidation of sludge with ozone before stabilization was efficient to eliminate eight from eleven organic compounds. For all sludge samples, sulfamethoxazole was biodegraded during anaerobic digestion. Batch desorption tests showed that micropollutants were more easily desorbed in limed sludge compared to digested sludge. Finally, the study of micropollutants availability during stabilized urban and hospital sludge landspreading on laboratory soil columns revealed that ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac and paracetamol were the only compounds present in leachates. This means that the other pharmaceutical compounds exhibited a lower mobility in soil.
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Delphine Lachassagne. Devenir de micropolluants présents dans les boues d’épuration, du traitement à l’épandage agricole : Application aux micropolluants métalliques (Cd, Cu) et organiques (médicaments) issus du traitement biologique conventionnel d’effluents urbains ou hospitaliers. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Limoges, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIMO0065⟩. ⟨tel-01161781⟩

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