Nijni Novgorod : interroger le paradigme de la "ville-nature" à l'ère postindustrielle

Abstract : The researches on the city of Nizhny Novgorod raise questions concerning “city-nature”. The specificities of this territory, situated in another cultural context, incite to contest the generalization of one paradigm, that of “city-nature”. This means to revisit the contemporary Russian city through the complexity of the interactions between the urban construction, which is conceived by human, and the natural processes. Through the “city-nature” we are questioning the “city” and the changes in its conception: the passage from the Russian town to the growing city and to the socialist city. The historic study was essential towards the understanding of the phenomenon of urbanization and the origins of the "natures", presented in the urban area. Its heterogeneousness results from a sequence of the economic and political upheavals. Nizhny Novgorod, during the Soviet period Gorky, is the centre of an industrial conglomeration; it is strongly marked by the industry. The postsoviétisation and the deindustrialization engendered the spatial reorganization and made the urban structure illegible. Nizhny Novgorod fit in the territory by multiple networks. Their recognition and distinction, realized by stratified reading through the cartographic analysis, puts in evidence the emergence of the "green" and participle in the qualification of the opened spaces. "Go out of the green" supposes to revisit the report between the ecology and the economy, as well as to reconsider the presence of the nature in the urban area by economic activities, the political aims and the usage of the natural processes by human. The thesis is structured by the thematic entrances in order to present the diversity of reports which contemporary Nijni Novgorod maintains with the nature. First of all, its position in the confluence of the Volga and Oka predetermined the economic viability and at the same time raised the problem of the complexity of the natural conditions, the hydrography and the topography particularly. In spite of improving the urban environment during the XXth century, the urban grounds remain practicable with difficulties and vulnerable in the natural processes. In the researches, the open and vegetated spaces, considered so far as not for construction, are revisited as belonging to the landscaped infrastructure. New principles of urban design are looked for to reorganize the natural processes in order to improve the quality of the urban grounds; the landscape design requires the engineering skills. Then, the strategic planning of the 1930s has predefined the disperse framework by Nijni Novgorod, conceived for the industries. The reason of urban incoherence due to the contradictions appeared between the conception of the united socialist city and the regular decentralization of the industries across the country. The urban green spaces conserve the imprint of the social upheavals, the political inactivity and the practices of urban design by the inhabitants with their own means. The decline of the USSR entailed the desolation of the city parks, whose qualities nowadays get closer to those of the spaces reserved for the new parks which were never realized. However, the poverty of the urban green spaces is compensated with the diversity of the forms of urban and suburban agriculture. The urban morphology consists of intermediate types, which include household plots, particularly for the gardens. Finally, the current processes are studied through the strategies of spatial organization, which will accompany the post-industrial regeneration and installation of the new activities. The post-sovietization brings to Nizhny Novgorod the new conditions for the urban project, but this passage is complicated by the anchoring of the Soviet doctrines in the urban conception. This research is realized on the intersection of the architectural territorial and landscaped regards and by the crossing of different methods: the history, the cartography and the opinion poll.
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Anna Voronina. Nijni Novgorod : interroger le paradigme de la "ville-nature" à l'ère postindustrielle. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENH013⟩. ⟨tel-01159908⟩



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