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Modélisation régionale de la composition chimique des aérosols prélevés au puy de Dôme (France)

Abstract : In the atmosphere, aerosol particles play a key role on both climate change and human health due to their effect on air quality. These particles are made of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic species emitted from several sources. Although the sources and the production mechanisms for inorganic species are now quite well understood, the characterization of the organic fraction is much more difficult to study. Indeed, particulate organic matter comes from primary organic aerosols directly emitted to the atmosphere and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which are formed from gas-to-particle conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Three-dimensional chemistry-transport models are developed to better understand the organic aerosol formation processes. However, these models underestimate the organic aerosol concentrations. The aim of this thesis is to study the transport, the emissions and the chemical transformations involved in the formation of the organic aerosols using the WRF-Chem chemistry-transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting – Chemistry; Grell .et al., 2005). Model outputs are compared to measurements performed at the puy de Dôme station (France) during three campaigns. These measurements allow for characterizing various air masses and different seasonal behaviours (in autumn, winter and summer). The station hosts many probes for controlling meteorological parameters, gas phase species and aerosol properties. In particular, a mass spectrometer (AMS: Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) provides detailed time evolution of the chemical composition and mass concentration of the particulate matter. The comparisons between model results and observations have shown that seasonal variations of the aerosol chemical composition are captured by the WRF-Chem model. However, the organic aerosols mass concentrations are strongly underestimated and this underestimation is more important for the polluted summer case. The calculated origins of air masses are comparable to the results of the lagrangian model HYSPLIT currently used for atmospheric dispersion. The top of the puy de Dôme is observed to be either in the boundary layer or above depending on the season and these observations are correctly reproduced by the WRF-Chem model. As the anthropogenic VOC concentrations are underestimated by WFR-Chem model, sensitivity tests on the anthropogenic VOC emissions and SOA yields, used in the VBS secondary organic aerosols parameterisation, are done to better reproduce the organic aerosol concentrations observed at the puy de Dôme station.
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Christelle Barbet. Modélisation régionale de la composition chimique des aérosols prélevés au puy de Dôme (France). Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22473⟩. ⟨tel-01155514⟩

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