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Adaptation de Staphylococcus xylosus à la matrice carnée, impact des composés nitrosés et utilisation des sources de fer

Abstract : Staphylococcus xylosus is used as starter culture in meat product for its role in the development of flavor and color. S. xylosus is characterized for its technological properties in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms for its adaptation in meat with or without nitrate and nitrite, frequently added in meat product, remained unknown. Global transcriptomic approaches were carried out to determine the molecular mechanisms. S. xylosus modulated the expression of 55 % of the genes to survive in a meat model. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glucose and gluconate catabolisms and peptidases were up expressed. In parallel, a lot of genes involved in amino acids synthesis were down regulated, probably due to their availability in the meat model. The meat model is a rich medium composed of various substrates and S. xylosus adapted its physiology through the transcriptional regulators CcpA and CodY. Finally, it responded to salt added in the meat model in overexpressing genes involved in mechanisms of osmoprotection, Na + and H + extrusion. S. xylosus modulated the expression of 24 % of the genes in presence of nitroso compounds in the meat model. These compounds generated a nitrosative stress. S. xylosus responded to this stress by over expressing genes involved in iron homeostasis through the derepression of the regulator Fur. It over expressed also genes encoding antioxidant enzymes through the derepression of the regulator PerR. Moreover, it over expressed genes involved in DNA and proteins repairs. Meat is rich in hemic and non-hemic iron. S. xylosus is able to grow in presence of ferritin, transferrin and potentially hemoproteins. Ferritin is one of preferential iron sources. An operon encoding potentially a membranous complex involved in oxydo-reduction reactions has been identified. A strain defective in the first gene of the operon confirmed that this complex could contribute to the iron acquisition from ferritin. This study revealed a global change in the gene expression of S. xylosus in the meat model; it highlighted ability of S. xylosus to mitigate nitrosative or osmotic stress, it characterised for the first time the capacity of a Staphylococcus to acquire ferritin-iron.
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Aurore Vermassen. Adaptation de Staphylococcus xylosus à la matrice carnée, impact des composés nitrosés et utilisation des sources de fer. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22535⟩. ⟨tel-01153499⟩

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