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Etude et modélisation de l'interface graphite/électrolyte dans les batteries lithium-ion

Abstract : This work relates to the lithium ion battery field. The purpose of this study is tobetter understand the behavior of graphite electrodes by focusing on the formationof a passive layer named Solid Electolyte Interface (SEI) which is formed at thegraphite/electrolyte interface. This work has led us to put forward models whichcan explain the SEI formation and identify the reactions which take place in alithium ion battery.The SEI results from reactions between graphite electrode, lithium ions and organicmolecules from the electrolyte during the first charge of the lithium ion battery. It ismainly composed of decomposition products from the electrolyte. Consumed lithiumions can no longer be used in the next cycle. The SEI is therefore responsible for theirreversible capacity during the first formation cycle which is the charge loss betweenthe intercalation process and the deintercalation process. It is necessary to betterunderstand the impact of the formation conditions and other parameters in orderto control and limit the irreversible charge loss. Lithium ion battery performancesdepend on this irreversible capacity, this value has to be reduced in order to maximizethe amount of exchanged lithium ions between negative and positive electrodes. TheSEI stability will determine the electrode behavior upon cycling.In this thesis, we chose to study the graphite behavior by testing several electrolytecompositions and graphite particle sizes in electrochemical cells similar to areal battery. Electrochemical techniques (galvanostatic cycling and electrochemicalimpedance spectroscopy) and surface analyses (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,scanning electron microscopy) will be combined. These results helped us to developa new model of the SEI formation.For the electrolyte, we chose to study the effect of the solvent (propylene carbonate)and the additive (vinylene carbonate). Both components are commonly used inthe electrolyte for commercial lithium ion batteries. For the graphite electrode, thechoice of graphite particles is essential because each graphite family has its ownsurface chemistry (basal and prismatic surfaces) which can react in many wayswith the electrolyte. Two graphite particles, with specific sizes and morphologiesare studied. They are separately used as active materials for negative electrodes inlithium ion batteries. Our unique approach is to prepare graphite electrodes basedon a mix of both particles with various compositions and then test the electrode225performances. After testing several formation conditions such as the cycling rateand the temperature, we found the ideal formation conditions for minimizing theelectrolyte decomposition and optimizing the film quality.Finally, based on all the characterization methods, we came to a better understandingof the film formation process. In this way, we have improved this essentialpreliminary step which can now lead to more durable cycling performances overtime. This study can have a major impact on the industrial level. The formationmodel cast a new light on the formation process and can therefore help to makeefficient graphite electrodes.
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Sarine Chhor. Etude et modélisation de l'interface graphite/électrolyte dans les batteries lithium-ion. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENI067⟩. ⟨tel-01153259⟩

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