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Implication du métabolisme carboné pour une production différentielle d'huile chez les plantes oléagineuses-Lin : modélisation des systèmes

Abstract : Flax seeds are composed oh high levels of oil (45 g oil / 100 g DM) stored as triglycerides in their embryos (Venglat et al., 2011). These highly unsatured oils have been used for many years for industrial applications (varnish, linoleum,...). However, these oils rich in omega-3 are also a great importance to human health. for this reason, the food industry is particularly interesed to develop innovative products enriched in linseed oil. To meet these requirements, it is necessary to develop linseed cultivars that accumulate more oils. In order to select such plants, it is necessary to acquire knowledge on mechanisms, accumulation and regulation of oils synthesis in oilseeds (Sharma and Chauhan, 2012). To better understand oil accumulation in flaxseed, two linseed genotypes presenting different level in oil content were selected (Astral : 44,6 ± 0,2 g oil / 100 MS ; 238 : 37,0 ± 0,7 g oil / 100 g DM). In this work, we determined the differences in accumulation between the two lines in embryos, integumen, the difference in gene expression in the embryos and the integument, and we analysed the metabolic flux in the embryos of both flax lines during the synthesis of fatty acids. These studies have shown : (i) the flax embryos Astral accumulates more oil in its embryo accumulates less protein in embryos, (ii) that the Astal flax husks accumulates less proanthocyanidins and proteins in teguments of the line 238, (iii) no link with the different oil accumumation in embryos and the difference in accumulation the integument could be demonstrated, (iv) that the glucose is the carbon precursor for the synthesis of fatty acids, (v) thet the flow of carbon to the synthesis of fatty acids predominantly through cytosolic glycolysis to PEP cytosolic, that is transported into the plastic for conversion to pruvate then acetylCoA, precursor synthesis of fatty acids, (vi) the flow for the synthesis of G3P in Astral embryos is 29 times higher than in the 238 embryos, (vii) the overexpression of the gene encoding the DHAP synthase (genolin_c54022 317) and G3PDH (genolin-c10324 594) in embryos of the Astral / 238, could induce a higher synthesis G3P necessary for the triglycerides.
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Sébastien Acket. Implication du métabolisme carboné pour une production différentielle d'huile chez les plantes oléagineuses-Lin : modélisation des systèmes. Autre. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015COMP2168⟩. ⟨tel-01153183⟩

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