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Les maisons de santé pluriprofessionnelles, une opportunité pour transformer les pratiques de soins de premier recours : place et rôle des pratiques préventives et éducatives dans des organisations innovantes

Abstract : The delivery of primary care in multi-professional health care centres (MSPs) has met with growing interest over the past few years. These types of care organisations have been presented as a solution to the challenges associated with population ageing, the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, the rise of inequalities in healthcare and of healthcare expenditures. MSPs contribute to the questioning of the French health care system, based historically on a curative and hospital-centred model complemented by a self-employed, isolated and city-concentrated system of medical practice. The need to give primary care a central place in the system has become an objective shared by public institutions and by some self-employed healthcare professionals (HCPs). It is associated with the aim of restructuring primary care in order to emphasize a prevention-based approach, in a more collective, coordinated, population-based and territory-based approach of public health. How are primary care practices being transformed within these MSPs? In the dynamics observed, what are the place and role played by preventive and educational practices? These questions are explored with a posture of “committed” research, based on a methodological and political reflection, involving medical, public health and sociological approaches. An analysis of the literature enables this research to place the development of MSPs in a continuum of organisational innovations, favoured by the decreasing number of doctors, the uneven distribution of HCPs and the territorialisation of healthcare provision. In order to seize - in a simultaneous and dynamic way - the current transformations and arrangements observed in MSPs and the meaning they have for the actors involved, the research is based on an ethnographical monograph of a project of MSP followed over a long period, and on interviews held with actors practicing in four different MSPs. The sociology of innovation enables us to highlight the “ways of doing things” and the translation operations that help to weave together the development of coordinated practice in MSPs and the implementation of prevention and educational measures involving actors not accustomed to working together. Moreover, the interactionist perspective in sociology allows us to apprehend the difficulties met by the actors in their daily practice, their aims and their arguments in favour of a new organisational framework, as well as the diversity of the different forms of their engagement and the underlying social dynamics. MSPs and initiatives of prevention and patient education implemented in these institutions appear as effective political instruments to “put professionals in movement” around objectives and organisations that have to be built up together, following several paths. With these flexible innovative devices, multi-professionality and preventive practices feed mutually on each other, contributing to the structuring of a primary care system on a territorial basis, and to the emergence of a wider definition of prevention. However, these transformations meet important constraints. On one hand, the reinvention of a collective medicine, against which the self-employed medicine has been opposed for over a century, collides with the weight of a heavy professional logical system, questioning the possibility of an extension of these new organisations. On the other hand, the scale of the preventive and educational supply of care is limited by the available resources as well as the choices made by the actors- and by the low rank given to patients. These results question the capacity of the actors to overtake the logical professional approach in order that they integrate from now on a public health logical approach with a preventive and educational aim. They also question the will of the actors to integrate a health-promoting approach, than could tackle the politics of intersectoral actions to affront the determinants of health inequalities.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 7, 2015 - 12:47:06 PM
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Cécile Fournier. Les maisons de santé pluriprofessionnelles, une opportunité pour transformer les pratiques de soins de premier recours : place et rôle des pratiques préventives et éducatives dans des organisations innovantes. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA11T011⟩. ⟨tel-01149605⟩

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