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Compréhension des mécanismes d'incompatibilité chimique du nitrate d'ammonium par modélisation moléculaire

Abstract : Numerous chemical reactants tend to lead to undesired phenomena of incompatibility. In order to prevent the happening of those phenomena, a rapid and accurate identification of the incompatibilities is needed. Until now, experimental studies, which provide insightful, but limited information, were the only possible approach used for the study of incompatibilities. In this work a molecular modeling approach was used in order to complete and improve experimental results of incompatibility processes for the reactivity of ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is a widely used compound in the chemical industry, known for its long list of incompatibilities and often involved in major accidents (Toulouse, 2001).This theoretical work, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, is intended to provide insights into the possible reaction pathways, enthalpies and products formed by incompatibility reaction between ammonium nitrate and other compounds. In this thesis the mechanism of the decomposition of pure ammonium nitrate in the gas phase was firstly characterized and then the reactivity of the mixture of ammonium nitrate – sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DCCNa) was considered. The results obtained suggest the existence of a reaction path, involving a direct reaction between the ammonium nitrate and DCCNa in the presence of a molecule of water.Furthermore, the theoretical approach was employed focusing on the study of the limiting steps of other chemical incompatibilities for ammonium nitrate systems (NaNO2, chlorinated substances). Those results were employed to understand the potentiality of the theoretical approach as a priori predicting tool for the incompatibility processes.In summary this work, pioneer in the microscopic study of chemical incompatibilities of ammonium nitrate, has clarified the reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of pure compounds, as well as in contact with other contaminants.
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Stefania Cagnina. Compréhension des mécanismes d'incompatibilité chimique du nitrate d'ammonium par modélisation moléculaire. Chimie théorique et/ou physique. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066629⟩. ⟨tel-01149100⟩



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