Y a-t-il une théorie génétique de la maladie ?

Abstract : While there is no consensual definition of the concept of genetic disease, this concept has gradually extended to designate common, non-hereditary, non-Mendelian, polygenic diseases, leading to the geneticization of diseases. In order to solve this paradox of the contemporary medical genetics, philosophers usually discard geneticization as an inappropriate genocentrist extension of the concept of genetic disease and attempt to define a stricter concept of genetic disease. We demonstrate the failure of this strategy and argue on the contrary that we should give up the concept of genetic disease and understand geneticization as the elaboration of an explanation of the common role of genes in diseases, what we call “a genetic theory of disease”. We define the conditions of possibility and the necessary criteria for a genetic theory a minima and end up with describing the spectrum of potential genetic theories. We then suggest to test whether geneticization of diseases reveals rather a genetic theory of diseases, that is, a set of genetic theories specific to each class of disease, or a genetic theory of disease, that is, a general definition of disease unifying the common role of genes in disease explanations. In order to do so, we analyse two examples of contemporary genetic theories: the genetic theory of infectious diseases and the genetic theory of network medicine. We conclude that several forms of genetic theories coexist in the contemporary biomedical literature and that this coexistence is necessary.
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Marie Darrason. Y a-t-il une théorie génétique de la maladie ?. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA010596⟩. ⟨tel-01147464v2⟩



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