Mimésis, narrativité, expressivité. Le cinéma dans son rapport au réel

Abstract : What exactly do we experience when we “watch a movie” ? This phrase may seem ill-chosen since, in this “spectatorial experience” the viewer not only watches but he also listens. However it announces straightaway a form of equivocity between what we watch and what we connect with, while watching a movie. It appears as a unique experience of mimesis whose analysis is the aim of this study.The chosen method consisted in carrying out our reflection starting from the attentive study of a corpus of six films: Waltz with Bachir, by Ari Folman, Hidden, by Michael Haneke, the diptych Mulholland drive/Lost highway, by David Lynch, the Mystery Picasso, by Henri-Georges Clouzot, and Even if she had been a criminal…, by Jean-Gabriel Périot. This method enabled us to study the type of operations which the watching of a film requires from the spectator, and led us to ask ourselves which is the nature of the objects perceived by the means of the cinematographic device. We’ve highlighted the equivocity of what the spectator perceives, by distinguishing three aspects of the filmic image : profigurant, figurative, figural. This distinction underlines the ambiguity of the filmic image in what it actually shows : a representation of the world, a mixing of images and sounds, a set of events resulting from the real world. This, in a second time, led us to study to what extent the director’s choices engages productive operations of direction and regulations for the spectator. On which conditions can we consider it as writing? And what is thus « realized » by these operations? At last, we have tried to analyse the singular role that the cinema offers to the spectator : this particular experience involves perceptive, cognitive and emotional activities, immersions in heterogeneous temporalities, and a mode of belief in which the viewer is aware of what is at stake.
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Florence Gravas. Mimésis, narrativité, expressivité. Le cinéma dans son rapport au réel. Philosophie. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIL30022⟩. ⟨tel-01146227⟩

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