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Amélioration de la localisation 3D de données laser terrestre à l'aide de cartes 2D ou modèles 3D

Fabrice Monnier 1
1 MATIS - Méthodes d'Analyses pour le Traitement d'Images et la Stéréorestitution
LaSTIG - Laboratoire des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information Géographique
Abstract : Technological advances in computer science (software and hardware) and particularly, GPS localization made digital models accessible to all people. In recent years, mobile mapping systems has enabled large scale mobile 3D scanning. One advantage of this technology for the urban environment is the potential ability to improve existing 2D or 3D database, especially their level of detail and variety of represented objects. Geographic database consist of a set of geometric primitives (generally 2D lines and plans or triangles in 3D) with a coarse level of detail but with the advantage of being available over wide geographical areas. They come from the fusion of various information (old campaigns performed manually, automated or hybrid design) wich may lead to manufacturing errors. The mobile mapping systems can acquire laser point clouds. These point clouds guarantee a fine level of detail up to more than one points per square centimeter. But there are some disavantages :- a large amount of data on small geographic areas that may cause problems for storage and treatment of up to several Terabyte during major acquisition,- the inherent acquisition difficulties to image the environment from the ground. In urban areas, the GPS signal required for proper georeferencing data can be disturbed by multipath or even stopped when GPS masking phenomena related to the reduction of the portion of the visible sky to capture enough satellites to find a good localization. Improve existing databases through these dataset acquired by a mobile mapping system requires alignment of these two sets. The main objective of this manuscript is to establish a pipeline of automatic processes to register these datasets together in the most reliable manner. Co-registration this data can be done in different ways. In this manuscript we have focused our work on the registration of mobile laser point cloud on geographical database by using a drift model suitable for the non rigid drift of these kind of mobile data. We have also developped a method to register geographical database containing semantics on mobile point cloud. The different optimization step performed on our methods allows to register the data fast enough for post-processing pipeline, which allows the management of large volumes of data (billions of laser points and thousands geometric primitives). We have also discussed on the problem of joint deformation. Our methods have been tested on simulated data and real data from different mission performed by IGN
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Fabrice Monnier. Amélioration de la localisation 3D de données laser terrestre à l'aide de cartes 2D ou modèles 3D. Analyse numérique [cs.NA]. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1114⟩. ⟨tel-01145812⟩

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