Relations entre profils alimentaires et maladies allergiques de l’enfant : étude des six villes françaises

Abstract : Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has risen in recent decades, especially amongchildren and in the Western world. This increase in prevalence has become a serious public healthproblem and might be related to a combination of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, andlifestyle changes, including dietary habits. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood dietrelatedallergic diseases are scarce.Objectives: This work reviews published literature dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition inrelation with allergic diseases among children taking into account the methodology used to evaluatedietary patterns. Moreover, it assesses primary the association between food patterns and asthma andallergic diseases and secondary the relation between asthma and overweight/obesity in the French SixCities Study.Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were used for theliterature review concerning diet and allergic diseases. Cross-sectional studies were conducted inBordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Créteil, Marseille, Reims, and Strasbourg among 7432 randomly selectedschoolchildren aged 9-11 years. Parental questionnaires, based on the International Study on Asthmaand Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), were used to collect information on allergic diseases and potentialrisk factors including a food frequency questionnaire to evaluate dietary habits. Skin prick testing tocommon allergens was performed to identify the existence of an allergic hypersensitivity and exercisetest was performed to assess Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA).Results: The mean intakes of 12 main food items were calculated and three food patterns wereextracted by principal component analysis labeled: the Mediterranean-like diet, the diet rich in omega-3fatty acids and the unhealthy diet. Relative risks of allergic diseases were estimated as odds ratios (OR)and confounders control was performed with multiple logistic regressions. Wheezing, asthma andrhinitis were more prevalent in boys than in girls. In the multivariate analysis, diet rich in omega-3 wasprotective for lifetime and severe asthma in children (adjusted OR: 0.77; 95% CI: [0.62 -0.96] and9adjusted OR: 0.55; 95% CI: [0.32 -0.94] respectively). Adherence to the Mediterranean-like diet rich inantioxidants tended to be protective against allergic diseases. Overweight and obesity were positivelyassociated with lifetime asthma in non-wheezing children (adjusted OR: 1,98 ; 95% CI: [1,06 -3,70])and were also positively associated with lifetime and past year allergic rhinitis in wheezing children(adjusted OR: 1.63; 95% CI: [1.09 -2.45] and adjusted OR: 2.20; 95% CI: [1.13 -4.27] respectively), butwere not associated with EIA.Conclusion: Overall, adherence to a healthy diet including antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids seemsto have a protective effect on asthma and allergy in childhood. Overweight and obesity weresignificantly associated with asthma in non-atopic children and with allergic rhinitis in atopic children.Prospective longitudinal studies should be necessary for evaluation of causal relations.
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Daniele Saadé. Relations entre profils alimentaires et maladies allergiques de l’enfant : étude des six villes françaises. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université de Bordeaux; Université libanaise, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BORD0479⟩. ⟨tel-01145384⟩

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