Etude de l’échantillonnage intégratif passif pour l’évaluation réglementaire de la qualité des milieux aquatiques : application à la contamination en pesticides et en éléments trace métalliques des bassins versants du Trec et de l’Auvézère

Abstract : The intensive use of pesticides in agriculture and urban activities since the 1950s has led to diffuse contamination of environmental compartments (air, soil, water). The presence of these molecules can lead to toxic effects for biota. The implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the use of an efficient monitoring network, based on reliable sampling and analytical techniques. Nowadays, grab sampling followed by extraction of analytes and chromatographic analysis is the most widespread strategy because of its simplicity of implementation but it also has numerous drawbacks. The crux of the issue lies in the lack of temporal representativeness and the low analytical sensibility. An alternative strategy to overcome some of these problems could be the use of passive samplers. This contribution aims at discuss about the possible application of passive samplers in regulatory monitoring programs. The originality of this work lies in :The variety of tested devices: three different samplers was studied (The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), the Chemcatcher and the Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film (DGT). Conventional grab sampling strategies were also evaluated.The variety of studied environments: two very different watersheds were selected. The first one presented a high level of contamination; the second had a low contamination in pesticides.The implementation of passive samplers in a real regulatory context, as the selected streams were monitored by the Water Agency for operational control. Data from the Water Agency could therefore be compared with passive sampler data.
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Gaelle Poulier. Etude de l’échantillonnage intégratif passif pour l’évaluation réglementaire de la qualité des milieux aquatiques : application à la contamination en pesticides et en éléments trace métalliques des bassins versants du Trec et de l’Auvézère. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Limoges, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIMO0032⟩. ⟨tel-01144157⟩

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