Etude de l’immunité anti-tumorale à long-terme induite par traitement par un anticorps anti-CD20 de souris porteuses de tumeur

Abstract : Monoclonal antibodies have been used to treat cancers since the early 1980s, in particular with the pioneer work of Ronald Levy for the treatment of lymphomas. Those treatments have been considered for a long time as a passive serotherapy with immediate and short term actions. Yet, recently, the idea of a vaccine effect of therapeutic antibodies in oncology have appeared, after preclinical studies and clinic observations suggesting a long term immune response in patients. In 2010, our team demonstrated that immunocompetent mice injected with EL4-huCD20 tumor cells and treated with anti-huCD20 monoclonal antibody generated a long term anti-tumor immune response linked with mechanisms dependent on constant part of antibodies and CD4+ T cells. My PhD work was based on the analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the treatment by an anti-CD20 mAb generates a cellar adaptive anti-tumor immunity. I could show that the treatment of mice with anti-CD20 antibody lead to the expansion of Th1 lymphocytes IFN-γ producers, to the apparition of effector memory CD4+ T cells specific for CD20 antigen, and to the blockade of the expansion of Treg cells induced by tumor cells. The key role of an adaptive anti-tumor immune response played by IL-12/IFN- γ and their main cellular sources, dendritic cells and NK cells, in the anti-tumor protection and genesis, has been demonstrated by experiments of cytokine neutralization, provoking an important decrease of splenic Th1 number, by NK depletion and by phenotypic analysis that allowed the identification of DCs activated by the treatment – as it is shown by the increased expression of MHC-II and CD80 and CD86 costimulation molecules, - as an important cellular source of IL-12. Finally, we could show that a variant of IL-2, binding preferentially IL-2By with a lower affinity for the IL-2aBy receptor mainly expressed by Tregs, could induce an increased anti-tumor protection of tumor-bearing animals treated with anti-CD20 mAb. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a pro-tumor immune contexture affected by a growing tumor can be modified by an anti-tumor antibody leading to an anti-tumor contexture. That such cellular adaptive immune response could be observed in lymphoma patients treated with anti-CD20 still need to be determined.
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Claire Deligne. Etude de l’immunité anti-tumorale à long-terme induite par traitement par un anticorps anti-CD20 de souris porteuses de tumeur. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB019⟩. ⟨tel-01138499⟩

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