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Autophagy, senescence and nitrogen remobilization in barley

Abstract : Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cereals in the world. It was one of the first domesticated crops and was used for centuries for human food. As all plants, barley has a fundamental dependence of inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen remobilization efficiency is very important for grain filling and grain protein content. The aim of this work was then to give a picture of the leaf-senescence metabolism in barley leaves when plants are grown under low or high nitrate conditions. Biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses of barley leaf senescence were performed. Nitrogen management during leaf senescence was monitored measuring changes in the different nitrogen pools during leaf ageing. In addition a large metabolite profiling study was performed in order to determine the metabolic hallmarks of leaf senescence in barley. In parallel enzymes involved in nitrogen remobilization were studied measuring their activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes. There was a special focus on glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase enzymes and for autophagy machinery that are known to play a role in nitrogen remobilisation during leaf senescence.From all the sequences data available, cDNA, EST and genomic sequences, we could identified five genes coding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), five genes coding for asparagine synthetase (AS) and 19 genes coding for autophagy machinery proteins. Transcript levels of all the genes identified were monitored during leaf senescence and depending on nitrate nutrition. Most of these genes were over-expressed in senescing leaves and differentially expressed depending on nitrate conditions. In addition to the characterization of autophagy, GS1 and ASN genes, phylogenic and gene structures were analysed. All the sequences data provided by this work will be helpful to further translational and genetic association studies.
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Liliana Astrid Avila Ospina. Autophagy, senescence and nitrogen remobilization in barley. Vegetal Biology. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112167⟩. ⟨tel-01137586⟩

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