Risques sanitaires et perception chez les agriculteurs utilisateurs de produits phytopharmaceutiques

Abstract : IntroductionMany factors influence the exposure of farmers to pesticides. Technical (spraying equipment, type of pesticides used), agronomic (type of crop, doses used, frequency) and human factors. The perception of risk is a determinant key of human behavior and how human faces to risk. Pest risk perception among farmers and the consequences of exposure to active substances of farmers have not been clearly studied.AimsThe objective of this study is to evaluate how risk perception affects farmers' practices. It also aims to describe and assess the determinants of this perception, and their impact on the health risk of pesticides users.Individual interviews are conducted to describe the perception of risk of pesticides' users. Measurements and modeling of exposure complement these observations. The measures focus on the parameters influenced by the perception of risk described in the interviews. The results of exposure measurements are compared to practices observed and used to qualify and quantify the impact of perception on health risk.ResultsThis work shows that farmers' perceptions of risk related to pesticides used is empirical and based on criteria such as smell, type, form or effectiveness of products to estimate the risk. Farmers' behavior to reduce exposure is correlated with their perception of the products used. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is the strongest marker of perception. The higher the risk perceived, the greater the use of PPE is high. But the practical risk reductions are not always effective in reducing exposure. Indeed, exposure measurements show that operators, even in users of PPE, are unaware of indirect contamination (cab tractors, work environment). Combined with frequent misuse of PPE (reuse of disposable PPE, partial or improper use), these defects perception are increase exposure to pesticides.Modeling and exposure’s measurement based on observed practices are used to quantify the health consequences of these behaviors. It appears that the health risk of pesticides is acceptable when used as recommended. However, recommended practices are theoretical and observations show that operators have behaviors that deviate from recommended practices depending on pesticides used. But these behaviors are not perceived as risky. The health risks associated with individual practice is very difficult to generalize. However, this work highlights profiles of risk and describes strong determinants of perception. The risk-control feeling is the key determinant in risk acceptance by farmers.ConclusionThis work shows that the perception of risk plays a decisive role in the exposure to pesticide of farmers. The health risk is substantially dependent on the perception of risk. The risk prevention policies must support this risk perception to adapt messages and educate the operators to not adapted practices such as indirect contamination or improper use of PPE, few considered by some pesticides users.
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Romain Boissonnot. Risques sanitaires et perception chez les agriculteurs utilisateurs de produits phytopharmaceutiques. Alimentation et Nutrition. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CNAM0958⟩. ⟨tel-01136658⟩

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