Structure et activité des Archaea planctoniques dans les écosystèmes aquatiques

Abstract : Aquatic Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, especially nitrogen, but details regarding their community structure and seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In marine ecosystems, the widespread distribution of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) suggests that they probably play a major role in nutrients cycling. However, we cannot generalize these observations to all aquatic ecosystems because of their high diversity and/or a lack of information and studies on these organisms for some of these ecosystems. More precisely, lacustrine and coastal ecosystems were less studied while they are potentially subjected to strong anthropogenic impacts. Moreover, notable differences in terms of diversity and activity between marine and freshwater communities can be expected, considering the specific environmental parameters of each ecosystem. The objectives of this thesis were: i) to study the archaeal community structure across a temporal scale and assess the diversity of archaeal communities and AOA in diverse aquatic ecosystems along anthropogenic and/or salinity gradient (lacustrine, estuarine and coastal ecosystems); ii) to determine their relative contribution in ammonia oxidation, compared to Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) by looking at their spatial and temporal distribution and activity, and iii) to explore more precisely the environmental parameters that could drive AOA and/or AOB establishment.
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Mylène Hugoni. Structure et activité des Archaea planctoniques dans les écosystèmes aquatiques. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CLF22388⟩. ⟨tel-01136205⟩

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