Dynamique de formation des biofilms de Bacillus subtilis à l’interface eau-air : expériences et modélisation

Abstract : Most of the time, the bacteria live inside the biofilm: the biological tissue that is attached to the surface (soft or solid), is made of the bacteria and of extracellular matrix. According to this thesis we study the mechanics that control the formation of a biofilm at the interface water-air by Bacillus subtilis (BS). First, we absorbed the phenotype evolution of the BS during the development of its population in liquid medium, under the conditions of a standard culture (no of biofilm in fine). We noticed that the population exhibits different cellular types (phenotypes) during this time. Then, after absorbing the different stages of the development in the formation of a biofilm, we created an experience that allows us to follow the macroscopic evolution of the concentration of the bacteria and its special distribution in the middle of the culture. We found that an accumulation of the bacteria forms under the surface water-air, even before the appearance of a biofilm. This accumulation is concomitant with the conservation in the liquid (bioconvection). The biofilm appears during the growth phase of the bacterial population in an average concentration in the culture medium of about 10¹³ bacteria / m³. Then, we formed a continuous model that shows us the evolution of the environment of the bacteria. This model reproduced the bioconvection that was observed in the experiments and reveals its effect on the concentration of oxygen in the biological culture. Finally we built a hybrid continuous-discreet model that described the transition of the disconnected bacteria (nomads) through the connected bacteria that form a solid biofilm (sedentary). Each bacteria is considered as an individual particle. The model takes the contact forces under consideration, as well as the elastic forces that can settle between the bacteria when linked by the matrix. A minimum number of biological skills were used to form a model from the bacteria; the cellular division that allowed it to colonize the medium biological culture, the motility and the aerotaxi that explains its migration towards the liquid surface, the quorum sensing (QS) and the cellular differentiation that allows them to spend nomadic phenotype (motile) sedentary phenotype (producer of matrix). The dioxygen environment of the bacteria and its middle hydrodynamic properties are described by continuous fields. The model reproduces all the formation steps of an observed biofilm in our experiment and confirms the need of certain biological skills. It shows that the threshold of QS plays a major role in the morphology and biofilm formation kinetics. On the other hand, the rate of diocygen consumption by the bacteria does not seem to have any significant role. Finally, we established that the bioconvection reacts as a retardant in the biofilm formation.
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Maxime Ardré. Dynamique de formation des biofilms de Bacillus subtilis à l’interface eau-air : expériences et modélisation. Biophysique [physics.bio-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112235⟩. ⟨tel-01135841⟩

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