Evolution décennale des zones côtières : Forçages climatiques / Forçages anthropiques

Abstract : Coastal systems play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles and are important areas for marine resources, exchange of materials and energy. Moreover, these environments are marked by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity of environmental factors, contributing to their complexity. Since global change has exerted intense pressure on these systems, the implementation of long-term monitoring programmes has become essential to extract major trends and predict potential changes. However, the identification of specific responses of these coastal systems remains unclear. Since 1997, monitoring of physical and chemical parameters of coastal waters in France is provided by the programme SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral). These comprehensive time series data from twelve stations around the French coasts were used 1) to characterize year-to-year variability in physicochemical properties of the surface layer and 2) to evaluate the potential influences of natural and anthropogenic variability. Firstly, the analysis of the SOMLIT time series shows that the French coastal systems exhibit significant temporal variability caused by hydro-climatic fluctuations at regional and meso-scales. Secondly, a new nonparametric multivariate procedure was developed to identify relative reference states to allow the rapid detection of changes and to quantify the fertilization in nutrient concentrations. As a result, it is shown that fertilization can be strongly influenced by climate forcing. Thirdly, after the removal of natural climate variability, indicators of human fertilisation are proposed, allowing the quantification of the impact of human activities on French coastal systems. This study proposes a new approach to detect potential alterations in all types of systems as soon as data become available and could provide a baseline for the adaptive management of coastal environments.
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Eric Goberville. Evolution décennale des zones côtières : Forçages climatiques / Forçages anthropiques. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université Bordeaux 1, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-01135197⟩

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