Ressources pollinifères et mellifères de l'Abeille domestique, Apis Mellifera, en paysage rural du nord-ouest de la France

Abstract : Since the beginning of the XXth century, the evolution of agriculture and the intensification of farming practices have led to landscape changes with the loss of natural and semi-natural habitats. These changes, involving a decrease of plant resources and a use of pesticides, may have noticeable impact on honey bee colonies. In this framework of weakened biodiversity, the initiative was taken of recording botanical species growing in the foraging area of two apiaries in cultivated landscapes of Western France and sampling pollen pellets and honey for pollen species determination during two successive beekeeping seasons. The aim of this study was to compare the available flora resources with those really exploited by the honey bees, to get a glimpse of the foraging strategies developed by the colonies in this landscape context. The floristic readings enabled to distinguish wide areas of cultivated plant species characterized by temporary blossoms from areas of wild species characterized by much smaller superficies and by flowerings spread over the year. Palynological analyses indicate that wild floristic species are exploited throughout the beekeeping season including during blooms of cultivated plant species. Even though not conclusively stated by the present study, it is possible that wild species provide colonies with nutritional intakes that cannot be totally compensated by temporary blooms of cultivated plants. A more extended knowledge of the nutritional values of pollens produced by plant species together with a better understanding of basic food needs for development and perennisation of colonies should help to test this hypothesis.
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Mélanie Piroux. Ressources pollinifères et mellifères de l'Abeille domestique, Apis Mellifera, en paysage rural du nord-ouest de la France. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22501⟩. ⟨tel-01135137⟩

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