Partitionnement des images hyperspectrales de grande dimension spatiale par propagation d'affinité

Abstract : The interest in hyperspectral image data has been constantly increasing during the last years. Indeed, hyperspectral images provide more detailed information about the spectral properties of a scene and allow a more precise discrimination of objects than traditional color images or even multispectral images. High spatial and spectral resolutions of hyperspectral images enable to precisely characterize the information pixel content. Though the potentialities of hyperspectral technology appear to be relatively wide, the analysis and the treatment of these data remain complex. In fact, exploiting such large data sets presents a great challenge. In this thesis, we are mainly interested in the reduction and partitioning of hyperspectral images of high spatial dimension. The proposed approach consists essentially of two steps: features extraction and classification of pixels of an image. A new approach for features extraction based on spatial and spectral tri-occurrences matrices defined on cubic neighborhoods is proposed. A comparative study shows the discrimination power of these new features over conventional ones as well as spectral signatures. Concerning the classification step, we are mainly interested in this thesis to the unsupervised and non-parametric classification approach because it has several advantages: no a priori knowledge, image partitioning for any application domain, and adaptability to the image information content. A comparative study of the most well-known semi-supervised (knowledge of number of classes) and unsupervised non-parametric methods (K-means, FCM, ISODATA, AP) showed the superiority of affinity propagation (AP). Despite its high correct classification rate, affinity propagation has two major drawbacks. Firstly, the number of classes is over-estimated when the preference parameter p value is initialized as the median value of the similarity matrix. Secondly, the partitioning of large size hyperspectral images is hampered by its quadratic computational complexity. Therefore, its application to this data type remains impossible. To overcome these two drawbacks, we propose an approach which consists of reducing the number of pixels to be classified before the application of AP by automatically grouping data points with high similarity. We also introduce a step to optimize the preference parameter value by maximizing a criterion related to the interclass variance, in order to correctly estimate the number of classes. The proposed approach was successfully applied on synthetic images, mono-component and multi-component and showed a consistent discrimination of obtained classes. It was also successfully applied and compared on hyperspectral images of high spatial dimension (1000 × 1000 pixels × 62 bands) in the context of a real application for the detection of invasive and non-invasive vegetation species.
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Mariem Soltani. Partitionnement des images hyperspectrales de grande dimension spatiale par propagation d'affinité. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Rennes 1, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014REN1S099⟩. ⟨tel-01134984⟩

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