Le" Futuh al-Habasa" : écriture de l'histoire, guerre et société dans le Bar Sa'ad ad-din (Ethiopie, XVIe siècle).

Abstract : The Futuh al-Habasa is an Arabic language account of a number of wars initiated by the imam Ahmad from the Bar Sa'ad ad-din sultanate against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia between the years 1520 and 1535/1537 ; of particular interest is its narrative of the temporary Muslim domination of the majority of the Christian territories during the conquest of Abyssinia (1531-1543). Through analysis of this unique endogenous source this PhD aims to propose a new way to approach th history of Ethiopia by considering the Ethiopian Islam as a full-fledged topic, at the crossroads between the studies on Ethiopia and those on Medieval Islam.The literary analysis of the Futuh al-Habasa reveals that its author, Arab Faqih, wrote this account after the failure of the « conquest of Abyssinia », probably with a view to convince the elites of the Bar Sa'ad ad-din to march on the Christian kingdom once again. Drawing on literature from the first centuries of Islam as well as on more contemporary references, Arab Faqih thus writes an apology of gihad, presenting the imam Ahmad as being an example of the perfect mugahid.On the other hand, studying the history of the Bar Sa'ad ad-din (1415-1583), the power relationships inside the sultanate and its links with the neighbouring Christian kingdom, reveals the factors internal to this society that pushed the imam Ahmad to undertake such a war. The Futuh al-Habasa shows finally that during this conquest, new practices of war and new ways of conceiving it emerged. It also details the project of a « great Muslim Ethiopia » that didn't survive the death of the imam in 1543.
Mots-clés : Futuh al-Habasa
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Amélie Chekroun. Le" Futuh al-Habasa" : écriture de l'histoire, guerre et société dans le Bar Sa'ad ad-din (Ethiopie, XVIe siècle).. Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA010699⟩. ⟨tel-01134623⟩

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