Entre forêt et énergie : composer la transition : le cas du bois-énergie en Auvergne et Rhône-Alpes

Abstract : The thesis uses the case of fuelwood to study how energy transition causes changes in natural resources management. Our work is based upon two case studies, French regions Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes, and we follow configurations from local to national levels. Balance of powers induced by asymetries of information on the available resource and the development of a common action along different levels of scale are our two main threads. In the first part, the chapter 1 focuses on relationships between forest and energy but also territorial, environmental and climatic policies. Our work highlights the spatial constraints wheighing upon forest resource. Fuelwood resource is different from other renewable energies because of its difficulties of access and its slow renewal, whereas solar or wind energies are infinite. Those bio-physical barriers are the reason for struggles between forest and energy stakeholders regarding which supply models to prefer: on the one hand, forest stakeholders advocate small boilers using local resource in small quantities, whereas, on the other hand, energy stakeholders prefer important boilers requiring long road transportation (hence more CO$_{2}$ emissions) but enabling economies of scale. Moreover, there is important internal problems in the forest sector, which represents the second most important source of trade deficit in France (after hydrocarbons) and experiences difficulties to sell national timber. Therefore, we present a context with strong uncertainties, both political and scientific. In the second chapter we conduct a statistical typology on fuelwood in Europe, in order to characterise more objectively the French situation. Then, the thesis analyses the sequences of the development of fuelwood in France, since the 1970s, to show how its use became progressively more rational. In the second part, our work investigates how national policies are dealt with by regional stakeholders, in Auvergne in chapter 3, then in Rhône-Alpes in chapter 4. This part underlines in particular the importance of asymetries of information among actors networks, the need for reliable tools and the different roles of forest and energy sector at regional level. Third part emphasizes, in chapter 5, that fuelwood can be analyzed as a common good and the need for polycentricity, i.e. multiple control levels. Finally, chapter 6 demonstrates how the assignation of a political value to fuelwood, and more generally to the energy and environmental transition, change balance between levels, from local to national.
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Antoine Tabourdeau. Entre forêt et énergie : composer la transition : le cas du bois-énergie en Auvergne et Rhône-Alpes. Environnement et Société. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENH005⟩. ⟨tel-01134549⟩

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