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Étude de la toxicité vasculaire de l’activateur tissulaire du plasminogène recombinant (rt-PA) après une ischémie cérébrale

Abstract : Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved pharmacological strategy for acute ischemic stroke. However, the efficacy of rt-PA is rarely complete, and arterial reocclusion can be observed. Furthermore, administration of rt-PA increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformations. Therefore, it is essential to seek mechanisms underlying the vascular toxicity of rt-PA in order to develop strategies protecting the vascular bed. Among these strategies, our laboratory has previously shown that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme, protects the blood-brain barrier, reduces hemorrhagic transformations and improves cerebral reperfusion following the post-ischemic administration of rt-PA. In this context, the aim of the present work was to establish the post-ischemic mechanisms of rt-PA-induced vascular alterations. The research was divided into (1) in vivo experiments and (2) in vitro studies to examine the effect of rt-PA on the endothelium. The in vivo studies were performed in a mouse model of thrombo-embolic stroke induced by thrombin injection in the middle cerebral artery. Our results showed that neither ischemia, nor rt-PA, nor the association to rt-PA of the potent inhibitor of PARP PJ34 alter cerebral fibrin deposits, a marker of hypoperfusion and reocclusion, at 24 hours after ischemia. We then evaluated the expression of two endothelial markers of inflammation : VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1). Our results showed that their expressions increase 24 hours after ischemia and are not modified by rt-PA. Finally, the association of PJ34 to rt-PA significantly reduced the post-ischemic expression of VCAM-1, suggesting a role for PARP in the expression of this adhesion molecule. The second part of my work was carried out in vitro in cultures of mouse brain-derived endothelial cells bEnd.3. In the presence of rt-PA, the organization and the morphology of the endothelial cells radically changed. However, these changes were associated neither to a degradation of endothelial junction proteins (occludin, VE-cadherin (vascular endothelial-cadherin)), nor to an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory endothelial markers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1). We were also interested in a recently identified marker of endothelial dysfunction : endothelial microparticles (EMP). Our results showed that rt-PA induces a significant increase in the EMP released by bEnd.3 cells. The use of a p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and the PARP inhibitor, PJ34, reduced this increase, suggesting that p38 and PARP could be involved in the EMP production induced by rt-PA. In conclusion, this work helps to clarify the vascular effects of rt-PA. Among these effects, the highlight of EMP production, through PARP pathway, is particularly original.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 18, 2015 - 3:25:53 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01131164, version 1



Marie Garraud. Étude de la toxicité vasculaire de l’activateur tissulaire du plasminogène recombinant (rt-PA) après une ischémie cérébrale. Pharmacologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05P618⟩. ⟨tel-01131164⟩



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