Optimisation de la réponse aux thiopurines par la pharmacogénétique : approches in vitro et cliniques

Abstract : Thiopurines are cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs widely prescribed, mainly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They constitute one of the best success story of pharmacogenetic implementation into clinical practice based on the screening of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency, a key enzyme in thiopurine metabolism. Optimization of thiopurine response is challenging because of its large interindividual variability such as inefficacy and toxicities. This thesis has explored, on one hand, the relationships between TPMT activity and metabolite concentrations, and on the other hand, factors associated with thiopurine inefficacy. Using a primary care pharmacogenetic database, we first analyzed TPMT distribution and genotype-phenotype correlation, in relation with thiopurine metabolites in a large population. Using a PheWAS study based on a clinical data warehouse we then reported that a very high TPMT activity (“ultra-rapid” phenotype) was associated with parameters of active IBD and poor response to thiopurines. Furthermore, a retrospective study in pediatric IBD identified factors predicting the occurrence of lymphopenia during thiopurine therapy. Finally, using a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) in vitro model, we established a transcriptomic signature, including 32 genes predicting thiopurine cellular resistance. A bioinformatic functional analysis identified metabolic pathways in relation with p53 and cell cycle, as well as molecular mechanisms associated with thiopurine resistance. To conclude, this research work, focusing on the variability of thiopurine response and mainly therapeutic resistance, provides new hypotheses to individualize and optimize therapeutic response to thiopurines.
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Laurent Chouchana. Optimisation de la réponse aux thiopurines par la pharmacogénétique : approches in vitro et cliniques. Pharmacologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05P616⟩. ⟨tel-01130339⟩

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