Isolement, identification et synthèse biomimétique de métabolites secondaires issus d'invertébrés marins de la zone sud-ouest de l'océan Indien

Abstract : The main purpose of this interdisciplinary thesis was to study Biemna laboutei, a sponge from Madagascar, known to have toxic properties (dermatitis-producing). The chemical investigation of this sponge including extraction, isolation and identification of secondary metabolites was first undertaken using several chromatographic (HPLC, MPLC…) and spectroscopic (UV-visible, HRMS, NMR 1D et 2D…) techniques. Eighteen alkaloids belonging to the rare class of tricyclic (5,6,8b)-triazaperhydroacenaphtylene heterocycles (i.e. ptilocaulins, mirabilins, netamines) were isolated and identified. Twelve new alkaloids from this group of guanidine derivatives were named netamine H-S. These compounds were grouped on the basis of unsaturation and double bond regiochemistry, with pyrimidine, Δ8,8a and Δ8a,8b heterocycles. For two compounds, netamine I (58) and J (59), a joint theoretical (Density functional theory) and experimental study of UV and ECD spectra allowed the determination of their absolute configuration: 5aS, 7R, 8R for netamine I and 5aS, 7R, 8S for netamine J. The chemotaxonomic meaning of these alkaloids was discussed. Their biological activities were also evaluated. Netamine M (62) exhibited a cytotoxic activity towards KB cells (IC50 = 1,0 μg/mL) while netamine O (64), Q (66) and K (60) were active against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 value of 4,66; 2,53 and 0,62 μg/mL respectively. Finally, this work was also dedicated to the biomimetic synthesis of the tricyclic guanidine skeleton. Three new synthesis routes were explored.
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Emmanuelle Gros. Isolement, identification et synthèse biomimétique de métabolites secondaires issus d'invertébrés marins de la zone sud-ouest de l'océan Indien. Cristallographie. Université de la Réunion, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LARE0005⟩. ⟨tel-01130134⟩

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