Propriétés thermo-physiques et hydratation de la surface de Mars

Abstract : This thesis work is devoted to the physical characterization of the Martian surface and to the study of dynamic processes modifying it. Two aspects are addressed. The first concerns the thermo-physical properties which are a mean to putting constraints on to the erosive and sedimentary actions summed over the geologic history. The second is the hydration of the Martian surface which plays, as a planetary reservoir of water, an important role on the Martian climate.In order to characterize these two physical parameters of the Martian surface, we have combined the orbital view which allows a global coverage with in situ measurements, which provides a robust local interpretation, and we have used tools allowing numerical simulations of physical processes. Data from OMEGA, an imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express orbiting Mars since 2004, and from the ground temperature sensor of the REMS instrument onboard Curiosity have been analyzed in details. Surface temperature measurements from these two instruments have been inverted using a climate model for characterizing the thermo-physical properties of the Martian surface. We present the first global map of the Martian surface thermal inertia constructed from OMEGA data and we directly highlight for the first time some thermal behavior caused by heterogeneous mixtures or neglected physical processes at the surface of Mars.Information regarding the hydration of the Martian surface have been extracted from OMEGA data using a large set of laboratory experiments. This information has been interpreted together with scientific results from multiple mission orbiting or at the surface of Mars and with numerical simulations of the Martian water cycle in order to reconstruct the history of this hydration. We find that the hydration remains stable throughout the whole Martian year and that it increases with latitude with an asymetry between the two hemispheres. The spatial distribution of the hydration fits areas that are in regular contact with water frost, which therefore seems to be involved in the process of water implementation in the Martian regolith.
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Joachim Audouard. Propriétés thermo-physiques et hydratation de la surface de Mars. Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre [astro-ph.EP]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112304⟩. ⟨tel-01127913⟩

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