Détection vibro-acoustique passive d’une réaction sodium-eau par formation de voies dans un générateur de vapeur d’un réacteur nucléaire à neutrons rapides refroidi au sodium

Abstract : This thesis deals with a new method to detect a sodium-water reaction in a steam generator of a fast sodium-cooled nuclear reactor. More precisely, the objective is to detect a micro-leak of water (flow < 1 g/s) in less than 10 seconds by measuring the external shell vibrations of the component. The strong background noise in operation makes impossible the use of a detection system based on a threshold overrun. A beamforming method applied to vibrations measured by a linear array of accelerometers is developed in this thesis to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to detect and locate the leak in the steam generator. A numerical study is first realized. Two models are developed in order to simulate the signals measured by the accelerometers of the array. The performances of the beamforming are then studied in function of several parameters, such as the source location and frequency, the damping factor, the background noise considered. The first model consists in an infinite plate in contact with a heavy fluid, excited by an acoustic monopole located in this fluid. Analyzing the transverse displacements in the wavenumber domain is useful to establish a criterion to sample correctly the vibration field of the plate. A second model, more representative of the system is also proposed. In this model, an elastic infinite cylindrical shell, filled with a heavy fluid is considered. The finite dimensions in the radial and circumferential directions lead to a modal behavior of the system which impacts the beamforming. Finally, the method is tested on an experimental mock-up which consists in a cylindrical pipe made in stainless steel and filled with water connected to hydraulic circuit. The water flow speed can be controlled by varying the speed of the pump. The acoustic source is generated by a hydrophone. The performances of the beamforming are studied for different water flow speeds and different amplitude and frequencies of the source.
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Jérémy Moriot. Détection vibro-acoustique passive d’une réaction sodium-eau par formation de voies dans un générateur de vapeur d’un réacteur nucléaire à neutrons rapides refroidi au sodium. Acoustique [physics.class-ph]. INSA de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ISAL0151⟩. ⟨tel-01127633⟩

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