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Recherche de matériaux isolants pour la conception d'une nouvelle génération de connecteurs électriques haute tension : influence de la pollution sur les phénomènes de décharges partielles du contournement et de claquage

Abstract : In the present study, we deal with an essential problem related to electrical lines accessories and more particularly to piercing connectors (TTDC 45501FA) commercialized by a private company named Sicame and which is located in Arnac-Pompadour (Corrèze, France). This product/accessory is designed to provide power diversions on medium voltage live lines HVA operating between 15 and 25kV. However, it becomes required to design a new generation of piercing connectors able to operate on 52kV live lines because of the electrical power demands that are steadily increasing. Actually, the main concerns about these products are the occurrence of partial discharges within the insulating material volume (polyamide 6 containing 50%wt of glass fibers). Most of the time, these discharges induce an early ageing process of the accessory under the combined effects of a corrosive environment (as salt fog) and an electric field threshold. Thus, the main objective of the present Ph.D. thesis is to carry out an appropriate choice of insulating materials among several tested polymers such as thermoplastics and thermosetting epoxy resins and EPDM elastomers that are capable of withstanding several constraints: thermal and electrical and mechanical and chemical conditions. The experimental section is focusing on the measurements of flashover voltage and partial discharges activity propagating on polymeric surfaces and breakdown voltage within material bulks under A.C voltage. That is why polymeric samples with plane surfaces and textured surfaces are molded to compare their resistance to partial discharges when being subjected to polluted environments such as salt fog; these measurements are necessary to choose the suitable materials for the required application to be integrated in the new generation of connectors. Then, the optical and electrical characterization results of creeping discharges propagating on several polymeric surfaces under lightning impulse (L.I.) voltage with its both polarities (positive and negative) and for two kinds of applied electric field (normal and tangential) are presented in the case of solid/air interfaces. Final length measurements of creepage discharges are the main parameter for distinguishing material properties.The whole obtained results (under AC and LI voltages) allow us to point out the cycloaliphatic epoxy resins as potential candidates to the conception of a new generation of piercing connectors. In addition, the electric field simulation and modelling of the TTDC 45501FA connector by using the Flux 2D/3D software seems to be helpful to design a connector prototype which exhibits a new geometry and is able to reach a voltage level that equals 52kV.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01127601, version 1

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Adnane Douar. Recherche de matériaux isolants pour la conception d'une nouvelle génération de connecteurs électriques haute tension : influence de la pollution sur les phénomènes de décharges partielles du contournement et de claquage. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ECDL0046⟩. ⟨tel-01127601⟩

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