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Theses

Biominéralisation osseuse : de la caractérisation structurale du minéral à son organisation 3D

Abstract : The work of this thesis is focused on the characterization of bone apatite crystals, mainly by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The originality of this work was to study a fresh bone sample, analyzed within two hours after its extraction from the animal (i.e. a two years old sheep). This approach avoids any alteration of the bone sample, and keeps its natural state of hydration. Such experimental rigor led to the evidence that the apatite crystals of bone own a high hydrophilic character. Furthermore, a analogous hydrophilic character has also been reported for two samples of biomimetic apatites, both studied in a artificial wet state. It is shown here that this hydrophilicity is given by the presence of a particular mineral domain located at the surface of the bone apatite (and biomimetic apatite) crystals, the so called non-apatitic domain. The NMR signatures (1H and 31P nuclei) and the hydrophilic properties of the non-apatitic domain were compared with those of a synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate, and all were found to be similar. The chemical composition of the non-apatitic domain was also studied, sometimes performed on a bone sample and sometimes on labeled (13C and 43C) biomimetic apatites. It has been shown that this non-apatitic domain is mainly composed of divalent species : Ca2+ , CO32- and HPO42-. Finally, some X-ray diffraction and cryo-electron transmission microscopy experiments were done to study the behavior of apatite crystals in aqueous media. It has been shown, surprisingly, that the water molecules strongly adsorbed on the non-apatitic domain at the surface of apatite crystals, can promote the adhesion between crystals and their 3D organization.
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Stanislas von Euw. Biominéralisation osseuse : de la caractérisation structurale du minéral à son organisation 3D. Chimie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066460⟩. ⟨tel-01127563⟩

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