Reconstruction de modèles CAO de scènes complexes à partir de nuages de points basés sur l’utilisation de connaissances a priori

Aurélien Bey 1
1 GeoMod - Modélisation Géométrique, Géométrie Algorithmique, Fractales
LIRIS - Laboratoire d'InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes d'information
Abstract : 3D models are often used in order to plan the maintenance of industrial environments.When it comes to the simulation of maintenance interventions, these 3D models have todescribe accurately the actual state of the scenes they stand for. These representationsare usually built from 3D point clouds that are huge set of 3D measurements acquiredin industrial sites, which guarantees the accuracy of the resulting 3D model. Althoughthere exists many works addressing the reconstruction problem, there is no solution toour knowledge which can provide results that are reliable enough to be further used inindustrial applications. Therefore this task is in fact handled by human experts nowadays.This thesis aims at providing a solution automating the reconstruction of industrialsites from 3D point clouds and providing highly reliable results. For that purpose, ourapproach relies on some available a priori knowledge and data about the scene to beprocessed. First, we consider that the 3D models of industrial sites are made of simpleprimitive shapes. Indeed, in the Computer Aided Design (CAD) field, this kind of scenesare described as assemblies of shapes such as planes, spheres, cylinders, cones, tori, . . . Ourown work focuses on planes, cylinders and tori since these three kind of shapes allow thedescription of most of the main components in industrial environment. Furthermore, weset some a priori rules about the way shapes should be assembled in a CAD model standingfor an industrial facility, which are based on expert knowledge about these environments.Eventually, we suppose that a CAD model standing for a scene which is similar to theone to be processed is available. This a priori CAO model typically comes from the priorreconstruction of a scene which looks like the one we are interested in. Despite the factthat they are similar theoretically, there may be significant differences between the sitessince each one has its own life cycle.Our work first states the reconstruction task as a Bayesian problem in which we haveto find the most probable CAD Model with respect to both the point cloud and the a prioriexpectations. In order to reach the CAD model maximizing the target probability, wepropose an iterative approach which improves the solution under construction each time anew randomly generated shape is tried to be inserted in it. Thus, the CAD model is builtstep by step by adding and removing shapes, until the algorithm gets to a local maximumof the target probability.
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Aurélien Bey. Reconstruction de modèles CAO de scènes complexes à partir de nuages de points basés sur l’utilisation de connaissances a priori. Vision par ordinateur et reconnaissance de formes [cs.CV]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LYO10103⟩. ⟨tel-01127533⟩

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