Régulation des cycles biogéochimiques par les communautés microbiennes pélagiques sous influence de perturbations physiques à méso-échelle

Abstract : Open-ocean convection episodes are recurrent winter physical processes, but irregular in intensity, with a strong disruptive effect on the pelagic ecosystem. My principal thesis objectives were to study the influence of the Northwestern Mediterranean convection on the biogeochemical cycles (nutrient distribution and assessment), and to evaluate their impacts on the microbial compartment (abundance, activity and diversity). This work was based on my active participation to the oceanographic cruises CASCADE (March 2011) and DeWEX (February and April 2013), which are incorporated in the framework of Mistral Mediterranean project (respectively in the WP3 and WP1 of MermEX program). We estimated that the nutrient supply by a single convection episode of “average-scale” was equivalent to the annual riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition in the golf of Lion. This could sustain a new primary production from 46 to 63 g C.m-2.a-1 (i.e. the annual new primary production rate of this area). A remote sensing approach allowed us to follow open-ocean convection episodes evolution, and to highlight the close relationship between this kind of physical forcing and the phytoplanktonic bloom development in the Northwestern Mediterranean. During the study of the impact of convection episodes on the role of microorganisms in the biogeochemical cycles regulation, we determined the influence of physical parameters and environmental factors on the modification of the microbial community diversity (pyrosequencing of Bacteria and Archaea), in relation with organic matter mineralization. Besides, we used convection mixing as a model to evaluate the ecological pertinence of SAR11, Marine group I and Marine Group II ecotypes, 3 taxonomic groups the most widespread and abundant in Mediterranean and in all the oceans. In a climate change context, my works allowed us to propose different coherent scenarios of the potential evolution of the Northwestern Mediterranean pelagic ecosystems. My study contribute to the understanding of the pelagic ecosystem evolution with the predictable modifications in frequency and/or intensity of open-ocean convection processes.
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Tatiana Severin. Régulation des cycles biogéochimiques par les communautés microbiennes pélagiques sous influence de perturbations physiques à méso-échelle. Océanographie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066431⟩. ⟨tel-01127496⟩

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