Modèles descriptifs de relations spatiales pour l'aide au diagnostic d'images biomédicales

Abstract : During the last decade, digital pathology has been improved thanks to the advance of image analysis algorithms and calculus power. Particularly, it is more and more based on histology images. This modality of images presents the advantage of showing only the biological objects targeted by the pathologists using specific stains while preserving as unharmed as possible the tissue structure. Numerous computer-aided diagnosis methods using these images have been developed this past few years in order to assist the medical experts with quantitative measurements. The studies presented in this thesis aim at adressing the challenges related to histology image analysis, as well as at developing an assisted diagnosis model mainly based on spatial relations, an information that currently used methods rarely use. A multiscale texture analysis is first proposed and applied to detect the presence of diseased tissue. A descriptor named Force Histogram Decomposition (FHD) is then introduced in order to extract the shapes and spatial organisation of regions within an object. Finally, histology images are described by the FHD measured on their different types of tissue and also on the stained biological objects inside every types of tissue. Preliminary studies showed that the FHD are able to accurately recognise objects on uniform backgrounds, including when spatial relations are supposed to hold no relevant information. Besides, the texture analysis method proved to be satisfactory in two different medical applications, namely histology images and fundus photographies. The performance of these methods are highlighted by a comparison with the usual approaches in their respectives fields. Finally, the complete method has been applied to assess the severity of cancers on two sets of histology images. The first one is given as part of the ANR project SPIRIT and presents metastatic mice livers. The other one comes from the challenge ICPR 2014 : Nuclear Atypia and contains human breast tissues. The analysis of spatial relations and shapes at two different scales achieves a correct recognition of metastatic cancer grades of 87.0 % and gives insight about the nuclear atypia grade. This proves the efficiency of the method as well as the relevance of measuring the spatial organisation in this particular type of images.
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Mickaël Garnier. Modèles descriptifs de relations spatiales pour l'aide au diagnostic d'images biomédicales. Informatique [cs]. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05S015⟩. ⟨tel-01127479⟩

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