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Intervention de la carnitine au cours du développement normal ou affecté chez Arabidopsis thaliana, en lien avec le métabolisme des lipides

Abstract : Specific modification of fatty acid profiles (FA) in vegetable oils can help to improve their nutritional quality but also to the development of a bio-Based industry where FA may represent an alternative to fossil fuel sources. However problems to modify the FA profile of vegetable oils still remain and are shared by all the teams involved. Although the biosynthesis of AG is now well characterized in plants, uncertainties remain about the tranfert of AG of acyl-CoA pool to lipid precursors and the forms of transport between different compartments involved in lipid synthesis. Carnitine plays an essential role in intracellular trafficking of FA in animals and yeast. The known presence of acyl-Carnitines in plant alongside the free carnitine, and measurement of associatied-Enzymatic activities also show the link between FA metabolism and carnitine. During this thesis we tried to improve our understanding of the role of carnitine in lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have shown by LC-QQQ-MS / MS in our plant extracts that oleoyl-, palmitoyl- and stearoyl-Carnitine are the predominant species and correspond to the three main AG (C18:1, C16:0 and C18:0) synthesized and exported from the plastids to supply the lipid synthesis of the eukaryotic pathway. Moreover, a significant increase of the levels of acyl-Carnitines were measured in developmental processes requiring high glycerolipid synthesis, such as the post-Germinative growth (2 days post-Imbibition) during root organogenesis, concomitantly with the level of expression of the eukaryotic lipid synthesis marker genes. Furthermore, comparison of the levels of acyl-Carnitine and carnitine ester revealed an unpublished results showing that a large fraction of carnitine is esterified to unusual FA or organic acids that we are currently identifing by LC QTOF-MS/MS. Thus, all of our results suggest that carnitine could be involved in the intracellular traffic of FA for the synthesis of lipids and particular eukaryotic lipids and/or in the transport of yet unidentified organic acids in plants.
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Phuong Jean Nguyen. Intervention de la carnitine au cours du développement normal ou affecté chez Arabidopsis thaliana, en lien avec le métabolisme des lipides. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014COMP1839⟩. ⟨tel-01127372⟩

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