Traces d’ADN bactérien et composés volatils comme premiers éléments de traçabilité des sels de terroir de l’océan Atlantique

Abstract : Salt has always been exploited in living memory. It has known its heyday at several occasions throughout history, particularly during the period of the French Gabelle, and therefore came to be seen as a precious white metal both sought after and expensive. Yet, nowadays, although it has been considered as an essential mineral, it has also turned up to be unhealthy when taken in excessive amounts. Consequently, salt workers of our day and age have to highlight the genuine nature of their product as well as their ancestral skills, for they both stand out as tokens of quality for our contemporaries. Meeting the expectations of the consumer is the only way for them to keep up with their work and maintain their share on the market. Thus, this study aimed to define ways for salt workers to have their work preserved, for instance throughout a Protected Designation of Origin. Therefore, a partnership with Atlantic French salt workers (from Ré Island, Noirmoutier, Guérande and Saint-Armel) has been established, allowing us to collect samples of salt marsh water and salts.First, an overview of microorganism population and 16S-rDNA in each water or salt sample permitted to define what kinds of microorganism populations were to be found in salt marshes. Secondly, a search for volatile components was led so as to determine whether the environment might affect the olfactory footprint of salt marshes and of salt itself during its formation and its harvest. A process of extraction and analysis has been developed, shedding light on a link between the origin and the olfactory footprint of salt. As an example, the halophilous microorganisms which are extremely rich in carotenoid (hence the red-orange colour of some marshes) are partly responsible for the presence of norisoprenoids in the volatile components which have been identified: 21 compounds were identified in Ré Island (including 8 norisoprenoids), 13 in Noirmoutier (including 7 norisoprenoids), 54 in Saint-Armel (including 25 norisoprenoids),19 in Guérande (including 10 norisoprenoids).For each area, DNA traces and volatile profiles were identified. Therefore, a strong link can be established between salt marshes and the salt they produce. It appears that the differences between salt flats regarding either their smell or their microbiota is always noteworthy, even when marshes are only a few miles apart. Thus, the specific pool of the identified microorganisms which leave prints on the salt would allow saltworkers to define their product so as to ensure a form of protection based on specific markers which are proper to each marsh.
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Clara Donadio. Traces d’ADN bactérien et composés volatils comme premiers éléments de traçabilité des sels de terroir de l’océan Atlantique. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LARE0006⟩. ⟨tel-01127159⟩

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