Dimensionnement et gestion d’un stockage d’énergie pour l'atténuation des incertitudes de production éolienne

Abstract : The context of this PhD thesis is the integration of wind power into the electricity grid of small islands. This work is supported by EDF SEI, the system operator for French islands. We study a wind-storage system where an energy storage is meant to help a wind farm operator fulfill a day-ahead production commitment to the grid. Within this context, we propose an approach for the optimization of the sizing and the control of the energy storage system (energy management). Because day-ahead wind power forecast errors are a major source of uncertainty, the energy management of the storage is a stochastic optimization problem (stochastic optimal control). To solve this problem, we first study the modeling of the components of the system. This include energy-based models of the storage system, with a focus on Lithium-ion and Sodium-Sulfur battery technologies. We then model the system inputs and in particular the stochastic time series like day-ahead forecast errors. We also discuss the modeling of storage aging, using a formulation which is adapted to the control optimization. Assembling all these models enables us to optimize the energy management of the storage system using the stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) method. We introduce the SDP algorithms and present our optimization results, with a special interest for the effect of the shape of the penalty function on the energy control law. We also present additional energy management applications with SDP (mitigation of wind power ramps and smoothing of ocean wave power). Having optimized the storage energy management, we address the optimization of the storage sizing (choice of the rated energy). Stochastic time series simulations show that the temporal structure (autocorrelation) of wind power forecast errors have a major impact on the need for storage capacity to reach a given performance level. Then we combine simulation results with cost parameters, including investment, losses and aging costs, to build a economic cost function for sizing. We also study storage sizing when the penalization of commitment deviations includes a tolerance threshold. We finish this manuscript with a structural study of the interaction between the optimizations of the sizing and the control of an energy storage system, because these two optimization problems are coupled.
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Pierre Haessig. Dimensionnement et gestion d’un stockage d’énergie pour l'atténuation des incertitudes de production éolienne. Energie électrique. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014DENS0030⟩. ⟨tel-01126946⟩

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