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L'aide sociale par le chèque : genèse et mise en oeuvre des politiques sociales et culturelles "ciblées" des collectivités territoriales

Abstract : In France, more and more social or cultural subsidies, given by local authorities to a targeted group of the population are not distributed directly in cash but under the shape of vouchers. In fact, the first local government to have proceeded like this is the Conseil Régional Rhône-Alpes in 1993 that have launched the “cultural voucher” which was given to the high school students. During the 90s, this way to proceed has become a kind of “fashion” among the French local authorities and nowadays, everything the French Region has at least one subsidy given through vouchers. This kind of tools are very wide-Spread over the world, especially in the US. As a tool of public policy it has been studied first by Milton Friedman and categorized as a pro-Choice and a libertarian tool. The most famous example of “liberal” voucher is the “school voucher” that permits the parents to choose the school of their children (it has been tested in Florida, Milwaukee and New York). The school voucher and a lot of other ones (stamp foods, medical vouchers…) has been implemented all over the world within the framework of programs leaded by institutions as the World Bank of the International Monetary Fund. The arrival of such vouchers in France seems surprising because of the political ideas of the leaders of most of the local government. It seems at least paradoxical to note that social democrat leaders have been the first to use vouchers to pay some social, cultural or other individual subsidies. This thesis tries to answer questions such “how such tools have been to spread through the French regions so easily” and “why haven't the local governments recognize that it was a pro-Choice and liberal tool that they were supposed to fight against?” Vouchers are in fact part of the French culture. France has developed in the 60s a program of luncheon vouchers that everybody knows named “Ticket restaurant”. Four firms composed the national market of the vouchers editors, three of them are the three world leaders of this global market. By using the example of the first cultural voucher created in France in 1993, they have gradually made their Business model evolved to suit these new market opportunities. One of the conclusions of the thesis is that the spreading of the vouchers among French local authorities has not only an ideological cause, but is simply the consequence commercial actions of French vouchers editor companies that have detected a new important market to conquer.
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Arnaud Lacheret. L'aide sociale par le chèque : genèse et mise en oeuvre des politiques sociales et culturelles "ciblées" des collectivités territoriales. Science politique. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENH003⟩. ⟨tel-01126864⟩

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