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Pharmacologie des antiangiogéniques : effet sur les propriétés élastiques des grosses artères

Abstract : Antiangiogenic drugs (AAD) are a relatively new class of anti-cancer therapy indicated in an increasing number of advanced solid tumors. By inhibiting the VEGF pathway, upstream with an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bévacizumab, and downstream with tyrosine kinase inhibitors of receptors involved in this signaling pathway (sorafenib and sunitinib), AAD induce arterial hypertension which is the most common side effect. The principal objective of my thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension induced by AAD, by determining the effect of AAD on large arteries. The second objective is to determine early marker of efficacy and optimization of AAD, by the use of therapeutic drug monitoring. To fulfill those objectives, we set up a clinical prospective, observational, single center study in which we followed the time-course of several arterial parameters after AAD by the use of non-invasive techniques in patients with metastatic solid tumors. In a first work we showed that brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness and carotid diameter significantly increased after AAD, partly independently of blood pressure changes. We also showed that high reflection waves and low aortic stiffness at baseline (i.e. before AAD initiation) predicted early systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase (regression coefficients: 0.37[0.04; 0.70] and -1.27[-2.43; -0.11], P<0.05 respectively) while only low aortic stiffness predicted SBP increase after chronic AAD exposure (-2.46 [-4.02 ; -0.90], P<0.01). Large arteries damage under AAD is positively associated with cancer progression. Indeed, early increase of aortic and carotid stiffness after AAD were associated with a higher risk of cancer progression (HR: 1.24 [1.01; 1.51], P=0.042 and 1.34 [1.03; 1.73], P=0.027 respectively). In a second part, using a pharmacokinetic model of population, we showed that large arteries damage observed after AAD was partly due to a pharmacological effect of AAD on large arteries independently of blood pressure increase. Arterial stiffness increase was proportional to AAD blood concentration and blood pressure increase (standardized correlation coefficients: 0.37 and 0.35, P<0.01, respectively), explaining 13% and 11% of the variance respectively. We also showed that progression and mortality related to cancer were lower in patients high AAD blood concentrations (HR: 0.60 [0.38; 0.97], P=0.035 and HR=0.38 [0.19; 0.79], P=0.01 respectively). And finally, we determined a target AAD blood concentration which will allow the clinicians to have an objective to reach in order to optimize the efficacy of AAD. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate the existence of large arteries damage translated by large arteries stiffening and a remodeling of carotid artery after AAD. This arterial damage is directly related to a pharmacological effect of AAD independently of blood pressure changes induced by these treatments. We showed that infringement of the arterial wall and the therapeutic drug monitoring predicted tumor prognosis. Thus, the monitoring of arterial properties monitoring and the therapeutic drug monitoring might optimize the chances of efficiency of AAD.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 6, 2015 - 10:16:26 PM
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Maureen Alivon. Pharmacologie des antiangiogéniques : effet sur les propriétés élastiques des grosses artères. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05P609⟩. ⟨tel-01126854⟩



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