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Le fractionnement alimentaire : une stratégie pour mieux contrôler son appétit ? : quels impacts sur la balance énergétique ? : approche physiologique et développement d’une méthodologie d’étude expérimentale du comportement alimentaire en situation écologique de restauration

Abstract : This thesis project consists in studying the effects of eating smaller more frequent meals, with no change in energy intake, on appetite and energy balance in normal weight and obese subjects. The first objective was methodological: we proposed and validated an original methodology for studying appetite, based on the duplication of the same protocol in two different research centers, and the use of an experimental restaurant, reproducing an ecological meal situation. This methodology enables to answer two methodological issues. Firstly, it allows an integrated approach of appetite, associating subjective (hunger and satiety feelings), physiological (biomarkers of appetite: ghrelin and GLP -1) and behavioral (food intake, choices and eating rhythms) measurements. Secondly, the ecological character of the eating situation we proposed, ensure a good external validity of the results. The second objective was to assess, thanks to this methodology, the short term consequences of eating smaller more frequent meals on subjective appetite, on hormones that regulates appetite, on eating behaviors during the subsequent meal, and on metabolic orientations. In normal weight subjects, subjective, physiological and behavioral approaches showed a decrease in appetite after eating smaller more frequent meals, while in obese subjects we did not obtain the same beneficial behaviors: obese subjects did not consume less energy during the subsequent meal. Metabolic results showed the same effects in both normal weight and obese subjects: insulin concentrations were maintained above their basal level, leading to an extended inhibition of lipolysis, characterized by a decrease in plasmatic concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids. Eating smaller more frequent meals also decreased energy expenditure via diet induced thermogenesis. This work highlights the fact that eating smaller more frequent meals may be beneficial in normal weight individuals in order to better control appetite, but it does not seem to be an adequate strategy in obese individuals. The effects on energy expenditure and metabolic orientations, potentially negative, should be studied over a longer period
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  • HAL Id : tel-01124293, version 1

Citation

Xavier Allirot. Le fractionnement alimentaire : une stratégie pour mieux contrôler son appétit ? : quels impacts sur la balance énergétique ? : approche physiologique et développement d’une méthodologie d’étude expérimentale du comportement alimentaire en situation écologique de restauration. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LYO10242⟩. ⟨tel-01124293⟩

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