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Etude de la spore de Bacillus subtilis : caractérisation des structures impliquées dans sa résistance

Abstract : The bacterial spore is a multilayer microbial form which is extremely resistant to environmental perturbations. This resistance is especially due to its unique structure which is particularly compact and weakly permeable. This work aims to identify and characterize the spore structures involved in these properties. Overall investigation methods, such as NMR and fluorescence anisotropy, have shown that the cortex of Bacillus subtilis spores is modified by temperature for level similar to that of the activation of germination. This will result in changes to the access to the inner membrane. A tool at the spore’s scale, the fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in conjunction with the use of a molecular rotor, has been set up. This tool allowed demonstrating that inner membrane of B. subtilis has a very high viscosity, about two times greater than that of the membrane of a vegetative cell. This viscosity is changed by temperature near 65 °C, which corresponds to activation of germination. A stress known to modify the structural integrity of the spore has also been studied: ethanol combined with significant temperature (65 ou 70 °C). This treatment is responsible for inactivation of spores in parallel with their permeabilization. Ethanol especially leads to alteration of the inner membrane for which the viscosity and permeability are changed. These results provide new understanding of mechanisms implicated in spores’ destruction. They allow considering some new applications, for which it is necessary to control structural changing, for example microencapsulation.
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Pauline Loison. Etude de la spore de Bacillus subtilis : caractérisation des structures impliquées dans sa résistance. Biotechnologies. Université de Bourgogne, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013DIJOS078⟩. ⟨tel-01124213⟩

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