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Remaniement nucléaire dans les lymphocytes B provoqué par les virus EBV et VIH-1

Abstract : Eighty percent of Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) cases bear translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32). Thistranslocation is the initial event in malignant transformation of normal B-cell and derives from nonhomologousend joining of the oncogene CMYC to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus IGH duringSomatic Hypermutation (SHM) of IGH. The probability of this translocation is inversely proportionalto the distance between the loci of involved chromosomes. The translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) occursduring normal development of B-lymphocytes and more probable in patients infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1).The subject of this study was to determine the possible origin of the translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) inhuman normal B-lymphocytes. We followed the dynamics of the nuclear localization of IGH andCMYC genes in activated B-lymphocytes. We payed particular attention to the impact of EBV andHIV-1 viruses on dynamics of both IGH and CMYC. We applied Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) for detection of CMYC (8q24) and IGH (14q32). In naïve B-cells CMYC is mainly localized inthe periphery of nucleus, whereas IGH is preferentially localized in the nuclear centre, i.e. these lociare distanced by a radius of cell nucleus. Activated B-lymphocytes displayed dramatic increase ofnumber of cells with colocalized IGH and CMYC. Close physical proximity of CMYC to IGH duringSHM amplifies the probability of occurance of translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) in human Blymphocytes.Interestingly, we observed even more pronounced impact of EBVand HIV-1onproximity of IGH and CMYC. Finaly, among the molecules of HIV-1 we revealed those which possessthe most regulative role on dynamics of both IGH and CMYC. Our results suggest about twoindependent mechanisms of IGH and CMYC dynamics: the first is appropriate for normal developmentof B-lymphocytes and the second depends on virus and viral molecules, such as transactivator of viraltranscription HIV Tat.
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Manel Klibi. Remaniement nucléaire dans les lymphocytes B provoqué par les virus EBV et VIH-1. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA11T090⟩. ⟨tel-01124191⟩

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