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Elaboration de micro-supercondensateurs à base d'électrodes en silicium nanostructuré : des nanomatériaux aux dispositifs

Abstract : Since 1990, portable electronics is a thriving field. Devices gather more and more functions and thusrequire more and more efficient energy sources in terms of power, autonomy and lifespan. Such sourcesshould be fixed as close as possible from the micro-electronic circuit, ideally directly on chip. Microsupercapacitorsare a promising solution. Due to the electrodes materials (carbon or metallic oxide), theirfabrication directly on chip is still difficult. It should be easier with silicon based electrodes. The aim of thiswork is the elaboration of micro-supercapacitors with nanostructured silicon based electrodes. Theirperformances can be improved by working on the electrode and the electrolyte. The electrode must bestable in the electrolyte and have a high developed surface. The electrolyte must lead to high voltage. Thiswork demonstrates that only highly doped silicon electrodes with an adapted surface treatment have acapacitive behavior. The electrode surface can be increased via nanostructures growth of by gold-catalyzedCVD. Thanks to the study of the influence of growth parameters on the nanostructures morphology, theprocess has been optimized to get highly doped, dense, long and hyperbranched nano-trees with severalbranches generations. Their doping level is precisely monitored thanks to the use of HCl. Doping, length,density and branches are the key parameters to improve the electrode capacity. Micro-supercapacitorsperformances (maximum voltage, energy, power, stability) with such electrodes have been evaluated inseveral electrolytes. Higher voltage, and thus higher energy and power can be reached in ionic liquids.Several improvement trails are investigated: surface treatment, new device design. Our processcompatibility with micro-electronics one has been checked.
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Fleur Thissandier. Elaboration de micro-supercondensateurs à base d'électrodes en silicium nanostructuré : des nanomatériaux aux dispositifs. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENV031⟩. ⟨tel-01124150⟩

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