ROS/RNS modulation in Systemic sclerosis treatment

Abstract : Several reports have suggested that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in SSc pathogenesis. SSc fibroblast from skin and internal organs overproduce ROS that trigger the proliferation of fibroblasts and the synthesis of type I collagen leading to the initiation and progresion of SSc. As in human SSc, skin fibroblasts from SSc mice constitutively produce large amounts of ROS. We have used this property to selectively induce apoptosis in the diseased fibroblast of SSc mice. Indeed, the organotelluride catalyst-(PHTE)2NQ and natural organosulfur compound – Dipropyltertrasulfide (DPTTS) are able of increasing ROS production by fibroblasts and inducing a lethal oxidative stress specificaly in SSc fibroblasts. This phenomenon has no impact on normal fibroblasts that present normal levels of ROS and a normal oxidant/antioxidant status. Many studies have also proved an importance of nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of SSc. In patients with SSc, the serum level of nitric oxide is significantly increased. Furthermore, NO can combine with other free radicals like superoxide anion (O•-2) to form the highly cytotoxic peroxynitrite (ONOO−) that contributes to inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis of endothelial cells. Production of NO by endothelial cells or by fibroblasts can be stimulated by angiotensin II, the main peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The level of angiotensin II is increased in SSc patients as well as in our HOCl mouse model and can promote proliferation of fibroblasts, fibrosis, and inflammation. These observations led us to test irbesartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist (AT1 RA) in the murine model of SSc. A new animal model based on chronic exposure to ROS and with many similarities to the human disease, allowed me to study new therapeutic approaches in SSc based on the cytotoxic action of pro-oxidative compounds - (PHTE)2NQ and DPTTS - and on the anti- nitrosative effect of irbesartan. These new therapeutic strategies open interesting perspectives in the treatment of SSc, where the therapeutic arsenal is currently still limited.
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Wioleta Marut. ROS/RNS modulation in Systemic sclerosis treatment. Human health and pathology. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05T079⟩. ⟨tel-01124101⟩

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